THE RAND TRANSCRIPT, REVISITED, pp. 1-17
In an examination of recently recovered materials from Russian archival sources, Sciabarra expands on his earlier studies of Rand's secondary and university education in Silver Age Russia (see the Fall 1999 essay, "The Rand Transcript"). He uncovers new details that are consistent with his historical theses, first presented in the 1995 book, Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical. He reexamines the case for a connection between Rand and N. O. Lossky, and proposes a possible parallel between Lossky and a character Rand called "Professor Leskov" in an early draft of the novel, We the Living.
MIMESIS AND EXPRESSION IN AYN RAND'S THEORY OF ART, pp. 19-56
This article explores the many ways in which Rand's theory of art, though basically mimetic, is strongly infused with expressive elements traditionally associated with Romantic aesthetics. This expressionism, it is argued, puts pressure on Rand's mimeticism to the point of threatening to destabilize it. This is especially evident in Rand's discussion of architecture and music, both of which she regards as valid art forms but fails to accommodate to her mimetic definition of art as a selective re-creation of reality. This inconsistency, the article suggests, is best resolved by reference to the expressive dimension that informs Rand's overall theory.
LANGER AND CAMUS: UNEXPECTED POST-KANTIAN AFFINITIES WITH RAND'S AESTHETICS, pp. 57-77
Contrary to the standard Objectivist view of post-Kantian philosophy's two principal lines of development, Linguistic Analysis and Existentialism, there are deep and striking commonalities between Ayn Rand's aesthetic views and those of two prominent writers in the latter traditions: Susanne Langer and Albert Camus. In particular, Langer holds the equivalent of Rand's microcosm view of art (as elaborated upon in Roger Bissell, "Art as Microcosm," 5, no. 2), and Camus holds a view indistinguishable in all essential respects from Rand's definition of art as "selective re-creation of reality."
THE FACTS OF REALITY: LOGIC AND HISTORY IN OBJECTIVIST DEBATES ABOUT GOVERNMENT, pp. 79-140
This essay examines Objectivist thinking on anarchism and minarchism. Drawing on a wide range of historical and anthropological sources, the author calls into question a number of standard Objectivist positions, such as 'government is essential to protect rights'; 'only government can create objective law'; and 'government is required to create the legal basis for commerce.' He also addresses the nature of individual rights, and concludes by querying some of Ayn Rand's interpretations of history.
AYN RAND VERSUS ADAM SMITH, pp. 141-80
This article compares Ayn Rand's trader principle with Adam Smith's invisible hand principle. Rand's defense of laissez-faire capitalism is often confused with Smith's defense of the market economy. White argues that Rand and Smith do not share the same ideas on the importance of self-interest or support the same sort of minimalist government, and that these are important and substantial differences between the two thinkers. He examines the antitrust case against Microsoft as one example of the importance of these differences.
FESER ON NOZICK, pp. 181-87
Edward Feser's book is an overview of the political philosophy of Robert Nozick from a rare perspective---a sympathetic one. In the space of a mere 100 pages, Feser manages to guide the reader through Nozick's Anarchy, State and Utopia, and to defuse some of the more popular criticisms leveled against it. With a few flaws---the most significant of which is the acute focus on Nozick's major work, to the exclusion of other papers and contributions---the overall effect of Feser's short work is impressive.
KANT ON FAITH, pp. 189-202
This paper analyzes the oft-quoted sentence from Immanuel Kant's first , viz., "I have therefore found it necessary to deny knowledge in order to make room for faith." Seddon argues that Kant is hardly the mystic that Ayn Rand and many Objectivists have caricatured him as being.
SEDDON ON RAND, pp. 203-7
Fred Seddon's book, , defends some of the historical figures Rand attacks in her polemical writings on the history of philosophy. Unfortunately, Seddon's interpretations of Plato, Augustine, Hume, Kant, and Nietzsche are often only marginally more sound than Rand's.
REFERENCE AND NECESSITY: A RAND-KRIPKE SYNTHESIS?, pp. 209-28
The widespread assumption among academic philosophers that no truth can be simultaneously necessary and factual, founded on the analytic-synthetic dichotomy, was challenged from outside the profession by Ayn Rand and Leonard Peikoff in the 1960s, and from within the profession by Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam in the 1970s. Gregory M. Browne's book represents a long-overdue attempt to synthesize the Rand-Peikoff and Kripke-Putnam approaches into an integrated theory. While Browne's project is partially successful, it gives up one of the chief attractions of these approaches: the ability to preserve continuity of reference across radical theoretical change.
REPLY TO ARI ARMSTRONG: HOW TO BE A PERCEPTUAL REALIST, pp. 229-37
In response to Ari Armstrong's essay, "A Direct Realist's Challenge to Skepticism," Huemer defends his views on two issues concerning the nature of perception, against the Objectivist position: First, he argues that perceptual experiences have propositional but nonconceptual content; second, he argues that in perceptual illusions, the senses misrepresent their objects. He finds that the Objectivist view that perception cannot misrepresent because it lacks propositional content not only is absurd but opens the door to philosophical skepticism.
REJOINDER TO MICHAEL HUEMER: DIRECT REALISM AND CAUSATION, pp. 239-45
Armstrong disagrees with Huemer over the proper interpretation of the Objectivist theory of concepts. Huemer worries that Objectivists empty perception of content, while Armstrong argues that Objectivists recognize some content. However, Huemer attempts to inject conceptual content into perception, which explains why his treatment of illusions differs from that of Objectivists.
A discussion of Ayn Rand’s relationship to and engagement with the Austrian school of economics.
This symposium is the second of two commemorating the centenary of Ayn Rand's birth.
INTRODUCTION: AYN RAND AMONG THE AUSTRIANS, pp. 241-50
This article surveys Rand's relationship to key thinkers in the Austrian school of economics, including Ludwig von Mises, Murray N. Rothbard, and F. A. Hayek. Austrian theory informs the writings of Rand and her early associates (e.g., Nathaniel Branden, Alan Greenspan, and George Reisman) on topics ranging from monopoly to business cycles. Some post-Randian thinkers (e.g., Richard Salsman), however, have repudiated many of these insights, thus constituting a movement away from the historically close relationship between Objectivism and Austrianism. This symposium explores the distinction between these approaches and the possibilities for a shared vision.
AYN RAND AND LUDWIG VON MISES, pp. 251-58
Ayn Rand and Ludwig von Mises share the distinction of being the leading advocates of laissez-faire capitalism in the twentieth century, and, indeed, in any century. Their ideas are complementary and mutually reinforcing. The differences that exist between them are essentially minor and superficial. The serious and comprehensive study of both authors is essential to the educated advocacy of capitalism.
AYN RAND AND AUSTRIAN ECONOMICS: TWO PEAS IN A POD, pp. 259-69
Ayn Rand highly recommended the economic writings of the Austrian school, particularly those of Ludwig von Mises. At least insofar as regards antitrust, money, and government, for the most part, paradoxically, the subjectivist Austrians, and the objectivist Randians, are as two peas in a pod. On the first two of these three, moreover, Rand and Murray Rothbard are on similar sides of the argument, at least vis-a-vis Mises and F. A. Hayek. With regard to the third, there is disagreement amongst the Austrians, and this is matched by ambivalence on the part of Rand herself.
ALAN GREENSPAN: RAND, REPUBLICANS, AND AUSTRIAN CRITICS, pp. 271-97
This paper has two principal components. First, it provides a sketch of Alan Greenspan's life, with emphasis on his attraction to Objectivism in the 1960s and his "public service" since 1974. This sketch is based primarily on three recent biographies of Greenspan---books by Bob Woodward, Jerome Tuccille, and Justin Martin---which are themselves reviewed. Second, it explains why Austrian business cycle theory is crucial to a proper assessment of Greenspan's performance as head of the Federal Reserve. The paper concludes that that performance has been significantly overrated by almost everyone except Austrian economists.
PRAXEOLOGY: WHO NEEDS IT, pp. 299-316
Despite her admiration for the economic theories of Ludwig von Mises, Ayn Rand rejects Mises's central concept of "praxeology," the science of human action. Yet the features of Misesian praxeology that Rand finds most objectionable---its aprioristic methodology, its value-subjectivism, and its claims about motivational psychology---can be reinterpreted in ways that make them congenial to Rand's philosophical principles while still preserving the essential points that Mises wishes to make.
SUBJECTIVISM, INTRINISICISM, APRIORISM: RAND AMONG THE AUSTRIANS? pp. 317-35
With its features of subjectivism, intrinsicism and apriorism, how could one possibly integrate Austrian economics with Ayn Rand's Objectivism? This paper does not argue that it is possible; rather, it sets out similarities on some central tenets, and suggests means to resolve the apparent obstacles. Possible directions for future thought are outlined with an emphasis on the works of Carl Menger, Eugen von Boehm-Bawerk, and others.
MENGER, MISES, RAND, AND BEYOND, pp. 337-74
By combining and synthesizing elements found in Austrian economics, Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism, and the closely related philosophy of human flourishing that originated with Aristotle, we have the potential to reframe the argument for a free society into a consistent reality-based whole whose integrated sum of knowledge and explanatory power is greater than that of its parts. The Austrian value-free praxeological defense of capitalism and the moral arguments of Rand, Aristotle, and the neo-Aristotelians can be brought together, resulting in a powerful, emergent libertarian synthesis of great promise.
TWO WORLDS AT ONCE: RAND, HAYEK, AND THE ETHICS OF THE MICRO- AND MACRO-COSMOS, pp. 375-403
Although both Rand and Hayek supported capitalism, their ethical systems were distinctly different. This paper explores these differences and how they apply to the institution of the family. It concludes that Rand's ethical system matches very well with what Hayek sees as necessary in the "Great Society" of the macro-cosmos, but that our understanding of the institution of the family seems better suited to a more altruistic ethical code. The challenge for a Hayekian ethics that pays attention to institutional contexts is how to ensure that the complex process of making those distinctions is learned as children pass into adulthood.
OUR UNETHICAL CONSTITUTION, pp. 405-44
In this article, the political ethics of Ayn Rand and Austrian economist Murray N. Rothbard are compared. Rand and Rothbard championed nearly identical fundamental principles of political ethics---chiefly, the right of every person to control his own life. Both Rand and Rothbard argued that the American system of government was originally intended to be grounded in this individual rights ethic. However, examination of historical and contextual factors demonstrates that the U.S. Constitution fails to embody the political ethics espoused by Rand and Rothbard.
TEACHING ECONOMICS THROUGH AYN RAND: HOW THE ECONOMY IS LIKE A NOVEL AND HOW THE NOVEL CAN TEACH US ABOUT ECONOMICS, pp. 445-65
The effective teaching of the principles of economics requires both a clear presentation of the logic of economic argumentation and the evidence of economic forces at work in the real economy. One of the most effective ways to communicate these principles is through the telling of a memorable story. The skillful telling of economic history is one way to accomplish this, but so is the use of literature. Ayn Rand's novels (especially ) are a prime example of how an economically literate author can construct meaningful and memorable stories that illuminate the principles of economics and political economy.
REPLY TO WILLIAM THOMAS: AN ECONOMIST RESPONDS, pp. 467-71
Yeager thanks William Thomas for a generally favorable review of his , but he does reply to a not-quite-explicit charge of vague, wishy-washy, middle-of-the-roadism.
REJOINDER TO LELAND B. YEAGER: CLARITY AND THE STANDARD OF ETHICS, pp. 473-76
Thomas clarifies his basic criticism of Yeager's book, Ethics as Social Science, emphasizing his concern about lack of clarity of argument rather than style. Thomas discusses the role of ethical standards in contextual moral reasoning and defends Rand's rejection of ethical altruism against criticisms that it represents a "corner solution" or an unrealistic slippery-slope argument.
Ari Armstrong, 9975 Wadsworth Pkwy. #K2-111, Westminster, Colorado 80021, graduated from Pepperdine University in 1994 with a B.A. in economics and a minor in philosophy. He edits , and he has written articles about politics and culture for , , , , and other publications.
Roger E. Bissell is a professional musician and graduate student at California Coast University. He is a writer on psychology and philosophy. His work has appeared in a number of other publications, including , , , , and . Roger's trombone playing is featured on a jazz CD released in December 2003.
Nicholas Dykes is a British/Canadian writer currently living in England. His philosophical essays include "Debunking Popper" ( #24, 1999); "A Tangled Web of Guesses: A Critical Examination of the Philosophy of Karl Popper" (1996); and "Mrs. Logic and the Law" (1998), a critique of Ayn Rand's view of government. His work has also appeared in , , and other journals. A book, was published in 1991. He is currently working on a novel.
Michael Huemer is an Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Colorado at Boulder, received his Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1998. His primary research is in the areas of epistemology and ethics. He is the author of (Rowman & Littlefield, 2001) and over twenty articles in philosophy.
Peter Jaworski is a Humane Studies Fellow completing an MSc in Philosophy and Public Policy at the London School of Economics. He received an MA in Philosophy from the University of Waterloo under the supervision of Jan Narveson, and will be pursuing his Ph.D. in Philosophy at Bowling Green State University. He has been published in the , the , the , among others. He has interned at the Cato Institute as a Charles G. Koch Fellow, as well as at the Fraser Institute (Canada). He is the winner of the 2005 Felix Morley Journalism Prize. He is an editorial board member of . He was an Issue Editor of , for an issue devoted to the political philosophy of Robert Nozick.
Roderick T. Long is an Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, 6080 Haley Center, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, A.B. Harvard 1985, Ph.D. Cornell 1992. He is the author of (The Objectivist Center, 2000) and (Routledge, 2006). He edits The Journal of Libertarian Studies ; runs a fledgling think tank, the Molinari Institute; blogs atAustro-Athenian Empire; and is currently engaged in translating some of the works of Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912), the originator of free-market anarchism.
Kirsti Minsaas is a literary scholar, formerly associated with the University of Oslo, Norway. In addition to works on Shakespeare and Aristotle's Poetics, she has published several articles on Ayn Rand's literature and aesthetic theory. Her most recent contributions to Rand criticism are included in (The Objectivist Center, 2005). She is currently working on a monograph dealing with the romantic vision of Rand's fictional world.
Chris Matthew Sciabarra is a Visiting Scholar, Department of Politics, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th floor, New York, New York 10003. He received his Ph.D., with distinction, in political theory, philosophy, and methodology from New York University. He is the author of the “Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy,” which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), and a founding coeditor of (1999–present).
Fred Seddon currently holds adjunct professorships at three universities in South Western Pennsylvania. He has been president of the West Virginia Philosophical Society since 1988 and is an associate member of the Center for the Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He is an international scholar and the author of over 100 books, articles, book reviews and speeches, including such works as , , and .
Robert White, P.O. Box 7581, Wellesley Street, Auckland, New Zealand, is a Ph.D. candidate in political philosophy. He is currently finishing his doctoral thesis on the ethical foundations of Ayn Rand's theory of individual rights, which is being funded by a University of Auckland Doctoral Scholarship. He has also lectured in political economy in the Department of Economics at the University of Auckland. His refereed publications include "Racism and the Law," which appeared in the 1996 issue of the . He has also written extensively for .
Walter Block is the Harold E. Wirth Eminent Scholar Endowed Chair in Economics at Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118. He is also Adjunct Scholar at the Mises Institute and at the Hoover Institution. He has previously taught at the University of Central Arkansas, Holy Cross College, Baruch (C.U.N.Y.) and Rutgers Universities, and has worked in various research capacities for the Fraser Institute, the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Tax Foundation, , and magazine. Having earned his Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University, he has published numerous popular and scholarly articles on economics. An economic commentator on national television and radio, he lectures widely on public policy issues to university students, service, professional and religious organizations. He is the editor and the author of seven more (the most famous of which is ). He has served as editor for , , , , , and . He was converted to libertarianism by Nathaniel Branden and Ayn Rand, whom he first met when the latter lectured at Brooklyn College, where he was an undergraduate.
Peter J. Boettke is the Director of Graduate Studies (Ph.D. Program) and Deputy Director of the James M. Buchanan Center for Political Economy at George Mason University, Professor of Economics, George Mason University, MSN 3G4, Fairfax, VA 22030. He is the editor of .
Steven Horwitz is an Associate Dean of the First Year and Professor of Economics, St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York 13617. He is the author of two books, (Routledge, 2000) and (Westview, 1992). He has written extensively on Austrian economics, Hayekian political economy, monetary theory and history, and macroeconomics. His work has been published in professional journals such as , , . Horwitz currently serves as the book review editor of and is past president of the Society for the Development of Austrian Economics.
RICHARD C. B. JOHNSSON
Candice E. Jackson, Esq., Jackson & Shoemaker, Inc., A Professional Law Corporation, 1411 Fifth Street, Suite 400, Santa Monica, California 90401, is an attorney in southern California. After serving as Litigation Counsel in the California office of Judicial Watch, Inc., she began her own law practice, Jackson & Shoemaker. She also co-authors articles with economist William L. Anderson critiquing the federal criminal justice system. Their articles have appeared in , magazine, and . Her forthcoming book from World Ahead Publishing, Inc. explores the connection between former President Clinton's leftist ideology and his rampant mistreatment of women (expected Spring 2005).
RODERICK T. LONG
Richard C. B. Johnsson earned his Ph.D. in economics 2003 from University of Uppsala, Sweden. His address is: Katarina Jagellonikas väg 14, SE-193 31 Sigtuna, Sweden. He has been published in top mainstream economics journals, while secretly pursuing his interest in political and economic freedom. He has been working as a researcher at The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden during 2003-2004 and is currently contemplating the historical evidence of extraterritorial constitutions, personal law, and panarchy as a freelance reader.
Roderick T. Long is an Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, 6080 Haley Center, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, A.B. Harvard 1985, Ph.D. Cornell 1992. He is the author of (The Objectivist Center, 2000) and (Routledge, 2006). He edits The Journal of Libertarian Studies ; runs a fledgling think tank, the Molinari Institute; blogs at Austro-Athenian Empire
George Reisman is a Professor of Economics at Pepperdine University's Graziadio School of Business and Management, 6100 Center Drive, Los Angeles, California 90045. He is the author of (Jameson Books) and (Jameson Books). He received his doctorate under Ludwig von Mises and is the translator of Mises's (Van Nostrand/Mises Institute).
Chris Matthew Sciabarra received his Ph.D., with distinction, in political theory, philosophy, and methodology from New York University. He is the author of the “Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy,” which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995; expanded second edition, 2013), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, ofFeminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), and a founding coeditor of (1999–present). He has written over a dozen encyclopedia entries dealing with Objectivism and libertarianism, given over 50 interviews published in such periodicals as , , , , and , and published over 150 essays, which have appeared in publications as diverse as , , , , , , , , and .
Larry J. Sechrest is a Professor of Economics and Director of the Free Enterprise Institute, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas 79832. He is the author of (Quorum Books). His research interests include free banking, business cycles, history of economic thought, economic history, maritime history, law and economics, and the philosophical foundations of economics.
William Thomas is the Director of Programs, The Objectivist Center, 11 Raymond Avenue, Suite 31, Poughkeepsie, New York, 12603. He earned an M.A. in economics from the University of Michigan (1991), where he taught the economic history of the United States and China. He is the editor of the series of philosophical monographs, and is the editor of (2005). His essays on topics in literature, politics, ethics, and epistemology have appeared in publications such as , , and , where he is a contributing editor. His essay "Ayn Rand: Radical for Capitalism" was recently published in , Frost and Sikkenga, eds. (2003).
Leland B. Yeager, Department of Economics, College of Business, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5242, is Paul Goodloe McIntire Professor of Economics Emeritus at the University of Virginia and Ludwig von Mises Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Economics at Auburn University. His most recent book is (Edward Elgar, 2001).
Edward W. Younkins, Professor, Department of Business, Wheeling Jesuit University, 316 Washington Avenue, Wheeling, West Virginia, 26003, is the author of numerous articles in accounting and business journals. In addition, his many free-market-oriented articles and reviews have appeared in a variety of publications. He is the author of (Lexington Books, 2002). He also edited a collection of Michael Novak's articles and essays entitled (Rowman & Littlefield, 2001). His newest book, will be published by Lexington Books in 2005.